Schools were prominent instruments of Americanization and offered opportunities for schoolchildren to enact patriotic war plays in the 1890s. Sons of several prominent Brownsville families are shown in this photograph. Standing left to right: Manuel Orive, James B. Wells Jr., Ramon Reyes, Sebastián Puente, Fred Harve, Gonzalo Fernández, Henry Harve, Robert Kingsbury, unidentified child, and Edgar Hicks. Kneeling from left to right: Joseph K. Wells, Willie Turregano, Charles Turregano, and James C. McAllen. Courtesy of Brownsville Historical Association, Brownsville, Texas.
From River of Hope: Forging Identity and Nation in the Rio Grande Borderlands by Omar S. Valerio-Jiménez (Duke University Press, 2013).

Schools were prominent instruments of Americanization and offered opportunities for schoolchildren to enact patriotic war plays in the 1890s. Sons of several prominent Brownsville families are shown in this photograph. Standing left to right: Manuel Orive, James B. Wells Jr., Ramon Reyes, Sebastián Puente, Fred Harve, Gonzalo Fernández, Henry Harve, Robert Kingsbury, unidentified child, and Edgar Hicks. Kneeling from left to right: Joseph K. Wells, Willie Turregano, Charles Turregano, and James C. McAllen. Courtesy of Brownsville Historical Association, Brownsville, Texas.

From River of Hope: Forging Identity and Nation in the Rio Grande Borderlands by Omar S. Valerio-Jiménez (Duke University Press, 2013).

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